• STEP 1 : Carbonization (Closed Pit)

    The process of carbonization is to convert coconut shells to charcoal. The charring process is known as pyrolysis, which is the chemical decomposition of the shell by heating in the absence of oxygen. During the carbonization of coconut shells, volatiles amounting to 70% of the mass of the coconut shell are released into the atmosphere, yielding 30% of the coconut shell charcoal.

  • STEP 2 : Activation (Rotary Kiln)

    The coconut shell charocal is activated by reaction with steam at a temperature of 850 °C - 1000 °C under controlled atmosphere in a rotary kiln. The reaction between steam and charcoal takes place at internal surface area, creating more sites for adsorption.